Flash/Silverlight: How much business can you afford to turn away?

Tim Anderson was asking about the future of Silverlight on Twitter today so here are my thoughts on the subject, in the context of earlier posts on the future of Flash:2009: Why Adobe Flash penetration is more like 50% than 99%
2010: Face it Flash, your days are numbered.
2011: RIP Adobe Flash (1996-2011) – now let’s bury the dead

In the early days of the Internet, a lack of native browser support for “advanced” functionality (particularly video) created a vacuum that propelled Flash to near ubiquity. It was the only plugin to achieve such deep penetration, though I would argue never as high as 99% (which Adobe laughably advertise to this day). As a result, developers were able to convince clients to adopt the platform for all manner of interactive sites (including, infamously, many/most restaurants).

The impossible challenge for proprietary browser plugins is staying up-to-date and secure across a myriad hardware and software platforms — it was hard enough trying to support multiple browsers on multiple versions of Windows on one hardware platform (x86), but with operating systems like Linux and Mac OS X now commanding non-negligible shares of the market it’s virtually impossible. Enter mobile devices, which by Adobe’s own reckoning outnumber PCs by 3 to 1. Plugin vendors now have an extremely diverse ecosystem of hardware (AMD, Intel, etc.) and software (Android, iOS, Symbian, Windows Phone 7, etc.) and an impossibly large number of permutations to support. Meanwhile browser engines (e.g. WebKit, which is the basis for Safari and Chrome on the desktop and iOS, Android and webOS on mobile devices) have added native support for the advanced features whose absence created a demand for Flash.

Unsurprisingly, not only is Flash in rapid decline — as evidenced by Adobe recently pulling out of the mobile market (and thus 3 in 4 devices) — but it would be virtually impossible for any competitor to reach its level of penetration. As such, Silverlight had (from the outset) a snowflake’s chance in hell of achieving an “acceptable” level of penetration.

What’s an “acceptable level of penetration” you ask? That’s quite simple — it’s the ratio of customers that businesses are prepared to turn away in order to access “advanced” functionality that is now natively supported in most browsers. At Adobe’s claimed 99% penetration you’re turning away 1 in 100 customers. At 90% you’re turning away 1 in 10. According to http://riastats.com, if you’re deploying a Flash site down under then you’re going to be turning away 13%, or a bit more than 1 in 8. For Silverlight it’s even worse — almost half of your customers won’t even get to see your site without having to install a plugin (which they are increasingly less likely to do).

How much revenue can your business tolerate losing? 1%? 10%? 50%? And for what benefit?

RIP Adobe Flash (1996-2011) – now let’s bury the dead

Adobe kills mobile Flash, giving Steve Jobs the last laugh, reports The Guardian’s Charles Arthur following the late Steve Jobs’ epic Thoughts on Flash rant 18 months ago. It’s been about 2.5 years since I too got sick of Flash bringing my powerful Mac to its knees, so I went after the underlying lie that perpetuates the problem, explaining why Adobe Flash penetration is more like 50% than 99%. I even made progress Towards a Flash free YouTube killer, only it ended up being YouTube themselves who eventually started testing a YouTube HTML5 Video Player (while you’re there please do your bit for the open web by clicking “Join the HTML5 Trial” at the bottom of that page).

I heard a sound as though a million restaurant websites cried out at onceCharles Arthur

You see, armed with this heavily manipulated statistic, armies of developers are to this day fraudulently duping their paying clients into deploying a platform that will invariably turn away a percentage of their business at the door, in favour of annoying flaming logos and other atrocities that blight the web:

How much business can you tolerate losing? If you’ve got 95% penetration then you’re turning away 1 in 20 customers. At 90% you’re turning away 1 in 10. At 50% half of your customers won’t even get to see your product. I don’t know too many businesses who can afford to turn away any customers in this economic climate.

In my opinion the only place Flash technology has in today’s cloud computing environment is as a component of the AIR runtime for building (sub-par) cross-platform applications, and even then I’d argue that they should be using HTML5. As an Adobe Creative Suite Master Collection customer I’m very happy to see them dropping support for this legacy technology to focus on generating interactive HTML5 applications, and look forward to a similar announcement for desktop versions of the Flash player in the not too distant future.In any case, with the overwhelming majority of devices being mobile today and with more and more of them including browser functionality, the days of Flash were numbered even before Adobe put the mobile version out of its misery. Let’s not drag this out any longer than we have to, and bury the dead by uninstalling Flash Player. Here’s instructions for Mac OS X and Windows, and if you’re not ready to take the plunge into an open standards based HTML5 future then at least install FlashBlock for Chrome or Firefox (surely you’re not still using IE?).

Update: Flash for TV is dead too, as if killing off mobile wasn’t enough: Adobe Scrapping Flash for TV, Too‎

Update: Rich Internet Application (RIA) architectures in general are in a lot of trouble — Microsoft are killing off Silverlight as well: Mm, Silverlight, what’s that smell? Yes, it’s death

Update: In a surprising move that will no doubt be reversed, RIM announced it would continue developing Flash on the PlayBook (despite almost certainly lacking the ability to do so): RIM vows to keep developing Flash for BlackBerry PlayBook – no joke

Face it Flash, your days are numbered.

It’s no secret that I’m no fan of Adobe Flash:

It should be no surprise then that I’m stoked to see a vigorous debate taking place about the future/fate of Flash well ahead of schedule, and even happier to see Flash sympathisers already resorting to desperate measures including “playing the porn card” (not to mention Farmville which, in addition to the myriad annoying, invasive and privacy-invading advertisements, I will also be more than happy to see extinct). In my mind this all but proves how dire their situation has become with the sudden onslaught of mobile devices deliberately absent flash malware*.

Let’s take a moment to talk about statistics. According to analysts there are currently “only” 1.3 billion Internet-connected PCs. To put that into context, there are already almost as many Internet-connected mobile devices. With a growth rate 2.5 times that of PCs, mobiles will soon become the dominant Internet access device. Of those new devices, few of them support Flash (think Android, iPhone), and with good reason – they are designed to be small, simple, performant and operate for hours/days between charges.

As if that’s not enough, companies with the power to make it happen would very much like for us to have a third device that fills the void between the two – a netbook or a tablet (like the iPad). For the most part (again being powered by Android and iPhone OS) these devices don’t support Flash either. Even if we were to give Adobe the benefit of the doubt in accepting their deceptiveoptimistic claims that Flash is currently “reaching 99% of Internet-enabled desktops in mature markets” (for more on that subject see Lies, damned lies and Adobe’s penetration statistics for Flash), between these two new markets it seems inevitable that their penetration rate will drop well below 50% real soon now.

Here’s the best part though, Flash penetration doesn’t even have to drop below 50% for us to break the vicious cycle of designers claiming “99% penetration” and users then having to install Flash because so many sites arbitrarily depend on it (using Flash for navigation is a particularly heinous offense, as is using it for headings with fancy fonts). Even if penetration were to drop to 95% (I would argue it already has long ago, especially if you dispense with weasel wording like “mature markets” and even moreso if you do away with the arbitrary “desktop” restriction – talk about sampling bias!) that translates to turning away 1 in 20 of your customers. At what point will merchants start to flinch – 1 in 10 (90%)? 1 in 5 (80%)? 1 in 4 (75%)? 1 in 2 (50%)?

As if that’s not enough, according to Rich Internet Application Statistics, you would be losing some of your best customers – those who can afford to run Mac OS X (87% penetration) and Windows 7 (around 75% penetration) – not to mention those with iPhones and iPads (neither of which are the cheapest devices on the market). Oh yeah and you heard it right, according to them, Flash penetration on Windows 7 is an embarassing 3 in 4 machines; even worse than SunOracle Java (though ironically Microsoft’s own Silverlight barely reaches 1 in 2 machines).

While we’re at it, at what point does it become “willful false advertising” for Adobe and their army of Flash designers to claim such deep penetration? Victims who pay $$lots for Flash-based sites only to discover from server logs that a surprisingly large percentage of users are being turned away have every reason to be upset, and ultimately to seek legal recourse. Why hasn’t this already happened? Has it? In any case designers like “Paul Threatt, a graphic designer at Jackson Walker design group, [who] has filed a complaint to the FTC alleging false advertising” ought to think twice before pointing the finger at Apple (accused in this case over a few mockups, briefly shown and since removed, in an iPad promo video).

At the end of the day much of what is annoying about the web is powered by Flash. If you don’t believe me then get a real browser and install Flashblock (for Firefox or Chrome) or ClickToFlash (for Safari) and see for yourself. You will be pleasantly surprised by the absence of annoyances as well as impressed by how well even an old computer can perform when not laden with this unnecessary parasite*. What is less obvious (but arguably more important) is that your security will dramatically improve as you significantly reduce your attack surface (while you’re at it replace Adobe Reader with Foxit and enjoy even more safety). As someone who has been largely Flash-free for the last 3 months I can assure you life is better on the other side; in addition to huge performance gains I’ve had far fewer crashes since purging my machine – unsurprising given according to Apple’s Steve Jobs, “Whenever a Mac crashes more often than not it’s because of Flash“. “No one will be using Flash, he says. The world is moving to HTML5.

So what can Adobe do about this now the horse has long since bolted? If you ask me, nothing. Dave Winer (another fellow who, like myself, “very much care[s] about an open Internet“) is somewhat more positive in posing the question What if Flash were an open standard? and suggesting that “Adobe might want to consider, right now, very quickly, giving Flash to the public domain. Disclaim all patents, open source all code, etc etc.“. Too bad it’s not that simple so long as one of the primary motivations for using Flash is bundled proprietary codecs like H.264 (which the MPEG LA have made abundantly clear will not be open sourced so long as they hold [over 900!] essential patents over it).

Update: Mobile Firefox Maemo RC3 has disabled Flash because “The Adobe Flash plugin used on many sites degraded the performance of the browser to the point where it didn’t meet Mozilla’s standards.” Sound familiar?

Update: Regarding the upcoming CS5 release which Adobe claims will “let you publish ActionScript 3 projects to run as native applications for iPhone“, this is not at all the same thing as the Flash plugin and will merely allow developers to create applications which suck more using a non-free SDK. No thanks. I’m unconvinced Apple will let such applications into the store anyway, citing performance concerns and/or the runtime rule.

Update: I tend to agree with Steven Wei that The best way for Adobe to save Flash is by killing it, but that doesn’t mean it’ll happen and any case if they wanted to do that they would have wanted to have started at least a year or two ago for the project to have any relevance, and it’s clear that they’re still busy flogging the binary plugin dead horse.

Update: Another important factor I neglected to mention above is that Adobe already struggle to maintain up-to-date binaries for a small number of major platforms and even then Mac and Linux are apparently second and third class citizens. If they’re struggling to manage the workload today then I don’t see what will make it any easier tomorrow with the myriad Linux/ARM devices hitting the market (among others). Nor would they want to – if they target HTML5, CSS3, etc. as proposed above then they have more resources to spend on having the best development environment out there.

* You may feel that words like “parasite” and “malware” are a bit strong for Flash, but when you think about it Flash has all the necessary attributes; it consumes your resources, weakens your security and is generally annoying. In short, the cost outweighs any perceived benefits.

HOWTO: Fix OS X by uninstalling Adobe Flash

Adobe Flash just ruined my day for the last time… I’ve just arrived in Paris and needed to do some work before a meeting this afternoon. As it’s noisy here I didn’t hear the MacBook’s fans running at full speed trying to compensate for a single rogue Flash ad in a tab in Google Chrome. The result was that my full 4 hour battery was reduced to less than 40 minutes and I now have no chance of getting everything I wanted to do done. Instead I’m going to use the remaining 20 minutes to tell you how to rid yourself of Flash once and for all, and in doing so enjoy the following benefits:

  • Significantly improved security (Snow Leopard even shipped with a vulnerable Flash player!)
  • Significantly improved performance (Flash regularly consumes most of the resources of even the most powerful machines)
  • Significantly longer battery life (the CPU consumes a lot more energy when it is busy)
  • Significantly less noise (MacBooks crank up the fans to deal with the extra heat)
  • No more annoying and invasive advertisements (virtually all of the most annoying ads are Flash)
  • Less distractions (while sites like YouTube have legitimate uses, the overwhelming majority of time spent there is procrastination)
  • A better Internet (Adobe’s penetration figures are already complete bullshit but by voting NO to Flash you’re sending developers a strong message)
  • An open Internet (Adobe Flash is a proprietary plugin that hampers the adoption of open standards like HTML 5)
  • A level playing field with one less monopoly (Adobe was the first company to achieve near-ubiquitous penetration rate with a proprietary plug-in, and it will hopefully be the last. Late entrants like Silverlight don’t stand a chance because there is just no incentive.)

Without further ado (as I’m running out of juice):

PS: You might be surprised to find that (provided you’re using a recent browser like Safari 4, Chrome, Firefox 3.5, etc.) videos such as those at Apple.com (including the Get a Mac ads) as well as sites like DailyMotion’s OpenVideo will “just work”, natively, in the browser, without Flash. That’s the future right there…

PPS: For the fanbois on whom the message that I’m not interested is lost, feel free to flame away below. The demise of Flash is going to happen, probably sooner than you would like, so why endure another day?

Update: After 2 weeks without Flash I’ve had far fewer problems, can open many more tabs and have not had to restart my browser at all. Even YouTube has its own HTML5 video demo pages up now so it’s only a matter of time before Flash will be relegated to the wonderful world of Internet advertising. For those who are stuck with Flash for whatever reason I recommend ClickToFlash which at least prevents it from being loaded without user interaction.

Towards a Flash free YouTube killer (was: Adobe Flash penetration more like 50%)

A couple of days ago I wrote about Why Adobe Flash penetration is more like 50% than 99%, which resulted in a bunch of comments as well as a fair bit of discussion elsewhere including commentary from Adobe’s own John Dowdell. It’s good to see some healthy discussion on this topic (though it’s a shame to see some branding it “more flash hate” and an AC poster asking “How much did M$ pay you for this”).

Anyway everyone likes a good demonstration so I figured why not create a proof-of-concept YouTube killer that uses HTML 5’s video tag?

Knowing that around 20% of my visitors already have a subset of HTML 5 support (either via Safari/WebKit or Firefox 3.1 beta), and that this figure will jump to over 50% shortly after Firefox 3.1 drops (over 50% of my readers use Firefox and over 90% of them run the most recent versions), I would already be considering taking advantage of the new VIDEO tag were I to add videos to the site (even though, as a Google Apps Premier Edition user I already have a white label version of YouTube at http://video.samj.net/).

Selecting the demo video was easy – my brother, Michael Johns, did a guest performance on American Idol last Wednesday and as per usual it’s already popped up on YouTube (complete with a HD version). Normally YouTube use Flash’s FLV codec but for HD they sensibly opted for H.264 which is supported by Safari (which supports anything QuickTime supports – including Ogg Vorbis for users with Perian installed). Getting the video file itself is just a case of browsing to the YouTube page, going to Window->Activity and double clicking the digitally signed link that looks something like ‘http://v4.cache.googlevideo.com/videoplayback‘ which should result in the video.mp4 file being downloaded (though now Google are offering paid downloads they’re working hard to stop unsanctioned downloading).

On the other hand Firefox 3.1 currently only supports Ogg Vorbis for licensing/patent reasons as even Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory (RAND) licensing is unreasonable and discriminatory for free and open source software. Unfortunately the W3C working group infamously removed a recommendation that implementors ‘should’ support Ogg Vorbis and Theora for audio and video respectively. Currently a codec recommendation is conspicuously absent from the HTML 5 working draft. So what’s a developer to do but make both Ogg and H.264 versions available? Fortunately transcoding MP4 to OGG (and vice versa) is easy enough with VLC, resulting in a similar quality but 10% smaller file (video.ogg).

The HTML code itself is quite straightforward. It demonstrates:

  • A body onLoad function to switch to Ogg for Firefox users
  • YouTube object fallback for unsupported browsers (which in turn falls back to embed)
  • A simple JavaScript Play/Pause control (which could easily be fleshed out to a slider, etc.)
  • A simple JavaScript event handler to show an alert when the video finishes playing
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&#8221; xml:lang=”en”>
<title>Towards a Flash free YouTube killer…</title>

<!– Basic test for Firefox switches to Ogg Theora –>
<!– TTest could be arbitrarily complex and/or run on the server side –>
<body onLoad=”if (/Firefox/.test(navigator.userAgent)){ document.getElementsByTagName(‘video’)[0].src = ‘video.ogg’; }”>
<h1>Michael Johns &amp; Carly Smithson – The Letter</h1>
<p>(Live At American Idol 02/18/2009) HD
(from <a href=”http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LkTCFo8XfAc”>YouTube</a&gt;)</p>

<!– Supported browsers will use the video code and ignore the rest –>
<video src=”video.mp4″ autoplay=”true” width=”630″ height=”380″>
<!– If video tag is unsupported by your browser legacy code used –>


<!– Here’s a script to give some basic playback control –>
function playPause() {
var myVideo = document.getElementsByTagName(‘video’)[0];
if (myVideo.paused)
<p><input type=button onclick=”playPause()” value=”Play/Pause”></p>

<!– Here’s an event handler which will tell us when the video finishes –>
myVideo.addEventListener(‘ended’, function () {
alert(‘video playback finished’)
} );
<p>By <a href=”https://samj.net/”>Sam Johnston</a> of
<a href=”http://www.aos.net.au/”>Australian Online Solutions</a></p>

This file (index.html) and the two video files above (video.mp4 and video.ogg) are then uploaded to Amazon S3 (at http://media.samj.net/) and made available via Amazon CloudFront content delivery network (at http://media.cdn.samj.net/). And finally you can see for yourself (bearing in mind that to keep the code clean no attempts were made to check the ready states so either download the files locally or be patient!):

Towards a Flash free YouTube killer…

Why Adobe Flash penetration is more like 50% than 99%

Slashdot discussed PC PRO’s “99% Flash Player Penetration – Too Good to be True?” article today which prompted me to explain why I have always been dubious of Adobe’s claim that “Flash content reaches 99.0% of Internet viewers“. Here’s the claim verbatim:

Adobe Flash Player is the world’s most pervasive software platform, used by over 2 million professionals and reaching 99.0% of Internet-enabled desktops in mature markets as well as a wide range of devices.

The methodology section asks more questions than it answers but fortunately we don’t even need to go into details about how 3-6% margins of error can lead to a 99% outcome. Here’s why the claim is bogus:

Mobile devices

“Internet viewers” clearly includes users of mobile devices like the iPhone and yet they are conveniently only counting “desktops in mature markets”. Fortunately this little chestnut which has just been removed from Adobe’s own Mobile & Devices Develoer Center is still available in the Google cache:

So by Adobe’s own reckoning there’s about 1 billion PCs to 3 billion mobile devices. That reconciles with other research, but the latest news is that we’ve just passed 4 billion (or 60% of the entire global population today). Let’s be conservative anyway and use Adobe’s own figures. So that’s 1 billion PCs to 3 billion mobiles.

99% of 25% is still less than 25% overall…

but that’s not really fair because many (most?) of those mobile devices aren’t yet Internet enabled. Well every iPhone sells with Internet and none of them have Flash so those 13 million Internet-enabled mobile devices already knock nearly a point and a half off their 99% claim. Google’s Android’s just getting started and its first incarnation (the T-Mobile G1) has already sold a million devices with many more to come this year.

The iPhone alone knocks it down to 97.5%

On the other hand, Flash Lite will have shipped on a billion devices by March so:

1 billion PCs + 1 billion mobiles = 2 billion out of 4 billion total = 50%

As if it’s not enough for Adobe that large segments of the mobile device market are currently out of their reach they have another two emerging technologies which will erode their penetration rates:


Features like the “video” and “canvas” tags, timed media playback, offline storage, messaging/networking, etc. (which have previously only been possible via 3rd party plugins) will soon be supported natively by the browser. I’m a W3C Invited Expert in the HTML 5 working group (primarily monitoring the web application developments) and it’s great to see demos like offline mobile Gmail already starting to appear. It will also be nice not having to download and install a plugin to view video content in sites like YouTube, Facebook and MySpace (arguably the main reason why anyone would install Flash in the first place).


Over 10 million of Netbooks (“Internet Notebooks”) shipped last year and another 35 million are expected to ship this year. So far Flash penetration hasn’t been too bad with Windows/Linux on x86 devices but the next generation will run a myriad operating systems on alternatives to x86 like ARM. Flash will certainly have trouble maintaining its usual penetration rates, and will have to do so with less incentive to install thanks to HTML 5 support in the browsers.

In summary, Flash has its place. It is constantly evolving and there are things that it does that can be difficult or impossible to do otherwise (e.g. video capture). However, if you choose to deploy Flash then you are choosing to exclude some potential users and it’s hard to say how many as it depends on many factors (your specific audience’s demographics, devices, locations, etc.). Adobe’s figures are not perfect so the only way to reliably know how many users you are turning away is to measure it after the fact. If you don’t need these advanced features then opt for a Native Web Application, or confine Flash objects to pages where it is absolutely required.

Update: There’s a handful of (mostly) developers discussing this article over at Y Combinator’s hacker news, generally in defense of Adobe’s figures (including a comment from Adobe’s own John Dowell). This is not “more flash hate“, rather an observation that things that seem “too good to be true” usually are. Take a quick glance at this screenshot from Adobe.com:

What does it tell you? Did you bother to read beyond the title? Would you have any doubts about using Flash for your site after seeing it? Should you?

Is an iPhone user really not an “Internet viewer” when iPhones ship with a full-featured browser and a data plan? Does “desktop” mean desktop computer or desktop metaphor? Are laptops and netbooks included? What happens if you drop the “mature markets” restriction? What does “over 2 million professionals” really mean anyway? How do the numbers for “real world” tests compare to the survey results?

Basically this clever marketing exercise (which no doubt overcomes the #1 objection to Flash in many instances) raises more questions than it answers.